Evaluation of the thermal efficiency of nanofluid flows in flat plate solar collector
1Mechanical Power Techniques Engineering, Technical Engineering College/ Kirkuk Northern Technical University, 98XW+PFX, Iraq
2College of Oil and Gas Techniques Engineering - Kirkuk, Northern Technical University, 98XW+PFX, Iraq; Renewable Energy Research Center - Kirkuk, Northern Technical University, 98XW+PFX, Iraq
J Ther Eng 2024; 2(10): 299-307 DOI: 10.18186/thermal.1448578
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In this research, flat plate solar collectors (FPSC) were studied due to their simplicity, low maintenance, and cost-effectiveness. The study focused on comparing FPSC thermal performance using CuO/H2O nanofluids. Experiments were conducted over three months during the Iraqi weather conditions (January, February, and March) with carefully selected nanoparticle concentrations. Data was collected from 9 A.M. to 3 P.M., using various mass flow rates (ranging from 0.003 to 0.076 kg/s). Results showed a direct correlation between temperature and nanoparticle concentrations, with the highest outlet temperature (50°C) observed at 3 P.M. for 1% CuO-water nanofluid. Notably, at 1 P.M. in March, the 1% CuO-water nanofluid exhibited a 32% increase in collector thermal efficiency, surpassing pure water by 11.3%. This would improve the performance of FPSC by achieving higher efficiency increments. These improvements were attributed to the unique physical properties of nanoparticles, their increased surface area, and higher thermal conductivity. The study determined that the optimum nanofluid concentration for superior collector efficiency was 1%.